Maurício Pestana, born in Santo André, published his first cartoons in 1983 in Pasquim. Since then he became one of the top critics of social and political injustice and racial discrimination in Brazil. His work appeared in such magazines as Jornal do País and Diário do Grande ABC. He studied the history of the black culture, trying to understand the multicultural society. His comments on society resulted in such comic books as 'Manual de Sobrevivência do Negro no Brasil', 'Cidadania não tem Cor', 'O Negro no Mercado de Trabalho', and 'Racista, eu? De Jeito Nenhum'. 'Violência Histórica' appeared in 2002.