Cartoon by Gal
Cartoon from 1978 depicting South African Prime Minister and apartheid proponent Johannes Balthazar Vorster. 

Gerard Alsteens is one of Flanders' best-known political cartoonists and graphic artists, who signs his work with GAL. Active since 1960, he is the longest-running cartoonist in the Belgian press. Gal is famous for his social consciousness, biting tone and unique graphic style. Contrary to many other cartoonists he is not out on a trivial punchline, but actual thought-provoking messages. His sharp and sour drawings have often caused controversy and occasional censorship. An idealist by heart, Gal has used his talent to design posters for countless humanitarian causes. He even joined protest marches. The artist also distinguishes himself from his colleagues by constantly experimenting with new styles and techniques. Widely admired and respected in his home country, he is nevertheless hardly imitated. As a result Gal remains a unique artist. 

Early life and influences
Gerard Alsteens was born in 1940 in Oudergem as the son of a grape cultivator. He studied painting and graphic arts at Sint-Lukas in Brussels. Among his graphic influences are painters like Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Francisco de Goya, Félicien Rops, Pablo Picasso, Frida Kahlo, Joseph Beuys, Louise Bourgeois, Maria Elena Viera da Silva, Niki de Saint-Phalle, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and Keith Haring and photographers like Diane Arbus and Henri Cartier-Bresson. In terms of cartoonists he looks up to Sempé, Saul Steinberg, Tomi Ungerer, André François, Bosc, Chaval, Roland Topor and Peter van Straaten. As a young man Gal was particularly enthralled by the free-spirited atmosphere of the 1960s, embracing Hara-Kiri magazine, Hugo Claus, Albert Camus, Carlos Castaneda, Pablo Neruda, Mikis Theodorakis, Zjef Vanuytsel, Willem Vermandere, Hugo Raspoet, The Beatles, Bob Dylan, Frank Zappa, Jacques Brel, Georges Brassens, Léo Ferré and the ideals of the May '68 movement. 

Cartoon by Gal
Homage by Gal to the 1960s, parodying 'Freedom Leads the People' by Eugène Délacroix. From left to right one notices astronaut Neil Armstrong, The Beatles, Eddie Adams' famous photograph of Nguyễn Ngọc Loan executing Nguyễn Văn Lém in Vietnam and Brigitte Bardot carrying a socialist flag and a sign with the May '68 slogan "It's forbidden to forbid", while her tummy reads the pro-abortion/contraception slogan "Boss In Own Belly". To her right Che Guevara raises his guns high. In the background we can spot the monk Thích Quảng Đức protesting against the South-Vietnamese government by burning himself to death. Below him we see a crumbling Christian cross, symbolizing the growing secularization during this decade. At the centre left we see South-African doctor Christian Banard holding the first heart transplant in history. In the left corner below one can spot a small fragment of Roy Lichtenstein's painting "Hopeless", next to John F. Kennedy's corpse holding a photograph of Marilyn Monroe in his hand. In the right corner we notice a defeated French president Charles De Gaulle with his left shoe reading "U.S. go home" next to Andy Warhol's Campbell soup can. Martin Luther King's lifeless body lies next to a Mai '68 poster. In the right corner we can see Brasilia, the architectural complex erected by Oscar Niemeyer in 1960.

De Linie
In 1962, during his final year of St. Lucas, Gal choose for apprenticeship at the weekly magazine De Linie. While run by Jesuits the publication did offer room for articles about many different topics, even critical voices. Gal started out as a printer and lay-out artist, often illustrating covers and pages in between. De Linie sometimes prepublished novels, which he illustrated too. At a certain point Gal was asked to replace their home cartoonist Pil and made his official graphic debut. He signed his early work with his last name, 'Alsteens', eventually using his now familiar pseudonym 'Gal', a contamination of the first letter of his first name and the first two of his last. The word 'gal' is also the Dutch word for 'gall (bladder)', alluding to the phrase 'zijn gal spuien over iets' ('to express one's gall over something'), which perfectly describes his biting style.  In 1964 De Linie was forced to close down on orders of the Vatican and Gal left to seek new horizonts. He became an art teacher at his former school in St. Lucas where he would stay until he retired in the mid 2000s. Two of his former students, Johan De Moor and Judith Vanistendael, would later have an active comics career.

De Nieuwe
Between 1964 and 1984 Gal was home cartoonist at De Nieuwe, a progressive weekly where he established his reputation. He created various political cartoons which stood out for their abrasive tone. Gal had the unique position of being in charge of the visual look of the entire magazine. He was not only preoccupied with designing covers, but also did inner lay-out and illustrations. He always looked back at this period as the most creatively satisfying time of his career. By 1984 sales of De Nieuwe were going downhill and Volksunie politician Hugo Schiltz would finance the indigent publication. Gal refused to work for a party magazine and resigned.

Knack
Since 1984 he is home cartoonist of the weekly magazine Knack. Its readership is more varied in opinion and ideology, which sometimes led to angy readers' letters over his work. At the same time he has a devoted fanbase. In 2004 Gal was struck by an eye embolism, which left him temporarily unable to draw. For a weeks there was no Gal cartoon in Knack, leading to concerned letters by readers. Eventually the handicap was fixed and Gal returned. Apart from Knack his cartoons have additionally appeared in Humo, Tijdschrift voor Diplomatie, De Zwijger, Panorama/De Post and De Morgen. In the Netherlands his work was published in Vrij Nederland and NRC Handelsblad, while in France he could be read in Le Nouvel Observateur (nowadays L'Obs). 

Mandela cartoon by Gal
Cartoon celebrating Nelson Mandela's release from prison, 1990. 

Style
Gal has often referred to himself as a "graphic journalist", rather than a cartoonist. He is not interested in cracking jokes about news events, but wants to make a powerful statement about an issue that touches him. Gal's drawings show immense compassion for the common man and woman, often exploited by governments and business people. Some of his drawings are instantly clear. Others invite the reader to think a little longer about their meaning. They all show great versatility in subject matter as well as style. Like many other cartoonists Gal too occasionally makes black-and-white doodles or comic strip-like panels. But he is far better known for his fully colourized, hand-painted cartoons, which sets him aside from most other Belgian cartoonists. Inspired by many different classic and modern artists Gal too frequently experiments with techniques and styles. Some of his work is very stylized, sometimes making use of abstract imagery. Other illustrations resemble a photorealistic painting. He has used formats like comics, optical illusions, playing cards, wine labels, board games and puppets for his ideas. Some of his cartoons are parodies of famous iconic paintings and photos. Overall Gal has always been difficult to categorize. 

Comic by Gal
Cartoon from the early 1980s, depicting Belgian Minister of Transport Herman De Croo. De Croo was known for enjoying horse riding and taking financial measures which hurt the common man. 

Social consciousness
Gal is a human whose social conciousness doesn't end behind his drawing table. Throughout his life he made countless posters and pamphlets for Broederlijk Delen, Amnesty International, Oxfam, Unesco, the ICFTU (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions), the anti-nuclear missiles movement and the anti-apartheid movement. He actively joined public demonstrations and manifestations to protest against war,  poverty, unemployment, nuclear arms, nuclear testing, dictatorships, corruption, racism, apartheid, the extreme right, pollution,... and other social injustices. In 1981 Gal made a cartoon which is probably his most widespread work. It depicts a common worker whose head is the world, despairing next to an empty wallet. The drawing first appeared in De Nieuwe, but has been reprinted all over the world, among others in The Unesco Courrier. 

Cartoon by Gal

Graphic contributions
Gal has lent his talent to other causes too. He illustrated various books, both fiction (Kristien Hemmerechts' novel 'Lang Geleden', 1994) as well as non-fiction (Geert van Istendael's 'Arm Brussel', 1992, and 'Bekentenissen Van Een Reactionair', 1994). The subjects have been as varied as May '68, Congo, the murder of Julien Lahaut, grape cultivation, illegal weapon trade, communism and the European far-right. He was one of the contributing artists to the book 'Il était une fois... Les Belges'/'Er waren eens... Belgen' (1980), a collection of columns and comic pages published at the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Belgium. In 1985, Gal made cartoons for Belgian novelist Hugo Claus' poetry book, 'Een weerzinwekkend bezoek', which criticized the Pope's visit to Belgium. Along with Benoît, Quirit, Peter De Roy, Jan Bosschaert, Erik Meynen, Zak and Jan De Maesschalk he was one of the cartoonists who made a graphic contribution to Johan Anthierens' anti-royal book 'Brief aan een postzegel' in 1990. The same year he also illustrated Guy De Pré's book 'De Pré Historie' (1990), based on his popular oldies radio show. For this book made a cartoon about every year between 1955 and 1984, summarizing important events of these particular years in 30 individual drawings. Many of these drawings were prepublished earlier in Panorama/De Post. He made posters for theatrical productions, concerts and museum exhibitions. For Flemish comedian Urbanus he designed posters for his tours in the Netherlands. In 2012 Gal also made a graphic contribution to 'Marc Sleen 90. Liber Amicorum' (2012), which honoured the 90th birthday of comics legend Marc Sleen

Gal also appeared in Benoît Lamy's documentary 'Cartoon Circus' (1972), a Belgian documentary about cartoons and comics, in which he was interviewed alongside Siné, Picha, Roland Topor, Cabu, Jean-Marc Reiser, François Cavanna, Professeur Choron, Georges Wolinski, Willem, Joke and Jules Feiffer.

Cartoon by Gal

Controversy
Gal is notorious for his confrontational style. Some his cartoons led to angry readers' letters. A 1982 cartoon caused outrage for deconstructing the iconic 1943 photo of Nazis arresting Jewish citizens in the ghetto of Warsaw by changing the Jewish boy in the center into a Palestinian and the soldiers into US president Reagan and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Some readers even withdrew their subscription. In 1993 Belgian king Baudouin / Boudewijn passed away. Gal drew the late king as an angel between the clouds, worrying what will happen to his country now? To his surprise many readers took offense because the beloved monarch was depicted in a night gown. 

Censorship
A few times throughout his career Gal's cartoons have been withheld from publication. A 1981 cartoon criticized the decision of the Belgian government to place U.S. nuclear missiles in Florennes, Belgium, despite massive opposition from the Belgian people. It depicts Prime Minister Wilfried Martens and Minister of Foreign Affairs Leo Tindemans buttoning their pants after just having raped a woman in Florennes. Her pulled-down pants have the same shape as Belgium. De Nieuwe refused to publish it. In 1985 the terrorist organisation C.C.C. planned bombings in Belgium, but always warned people beforehand that they needed to evacuate the building. Gal drew a cartoon depicting the C.C.C. as a pathetic loser about to be crushed by the giant Belgian state. Knack refused the cartoon because they interpreted it as sympathizing with the C.C.C. In 1990 another controversial cartoon was withheld from publication. It criticized king Baudouin/Boudewijn's refusal to personally sign the abortion legalisation law and let his Prime Minister Martens do the job for him. Gal drew the monarch and his wife Fabiola amidst several horribly disfigured babies, with a portrait of Pope John Paul II hanging above them. 

Cartoon by Gal

Cultural impact
Gal has experienced the power of his work in other fields as well. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s he made many posters supporting the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa. One evening he watched a news broadcast about a house in South Africa which had been victim of a racist bomb attack. On the wall of the severely burnt out building he noticed one of his anti-apartheid posters. In the early 1980s a liberal cultural organisation asked Gal to make a cartoon for their party member and then Minister of Finance Willy De Clercq. Gal drew the politician - who was known for his curly hair - as a waiter with spaghetti hair in a restaurant. He serves delicious spaghetti from his head to a rich businessman, while a simple worker has to be satisfied with a simple bowl of soup in which one of De Clercq's hairs is floating. The real De Clercq wasn't happy with his "present". 

In 1995 Gal was invited to the Flemish parliament by the TV channel BRT (nowadays the VRT) to show some political cartoons. The journalists had warned him beforehand to not bring in cartoons criticizing the far-right party Vlaams Blok. Gal showed these drawings nevertheless. Out of protest the entire Vlaams Blok fraction left the room, one of them even directly walking up to the cartoonist to insult him, which Gal just laughed off. In 2015 the headquarters of the satirical magazine Charlie-Hebdo in Paris were attacked by terrorists who murdered nearly the entire editorial board. Flemish politician Bart de Wever of the separatist party N-VA posted a cartoon by Gal which ridiculed him and stated that freedom of speech was important. Gal wasn't pleased by this deed, since De Wever used an old cartoon without addressing its context. 

Cartoon by Gal

Recognition
While sometimes angrying readers and politicians Gal has also won several awards. In 1967 he won the First Prize at the International Cartoon Festival of Knokke-Heist for a cartoon depicting US president Lyndon B. Johnson reading newspaper articles about the Vietnam War and the Black Power movement, while his thinking wrinkles gradually grow along with the length of the articles. Gal was Belgium's selection for the 1980 Biennale in Venice. He designed a sculpture depicting U.S. President Jimmy Carter's smile, with a toothbrush made out of nuclear missiles. In 1988 Gal received the Prize for Graphic Arts, selected by the Flemish Community, and the prestigious Ark Prize for Free Speech in 1994. In 2003 he won the Press Cartoon Belgium award for a cartoon depicting the power shortage in the USA that year: it shows a man strapped to an electric chair, whose illuminated smile lightens up the darkness around him. In 2004 Gal also received the BeNe Cartoon Award for best Belgian-Dutch political cartoon. His winning work dealt with the Nobel Peace Award for the Iranian activist Shirin Ebadi and showes a peace dove flying out of a woman's burka, who immediately shits on the head of an Iranian cleric. The same year Gal also received the annual Human Rights Award from the Belgian Human Rights League.

Gal's artwork has frequently been exhibited and received praise from people like Georges Wolinski, Paul Jamin (despite not sharing his ideology), painter Luc Tuymans and novelist Hugo Claus. On 2 April 2019 Gal will receive a honorary doctorate from the Vrije Universiteit (Free University) in Brussels. 


2016 cartoon caricaturing U.S. President Donald Trump. 

Books about Gal
For those interested in Gal's life and work the books 'Gal: de Overspannen Jaren' (Epo, 1996) and 'Gal, een halve eeuw op het scherpst van de snee' (Van Halewyck, 2011) are highly recommended. 'Gal: de Overspannen Jaren' was written by Johan Anthierens, with a preface by Brigitte Raskin and graphic homages by Benoît, Zak, Pirana, Jan Bosschaert, Erik Meynen, Marec, Wolinski and Ever Meulen. 'Een Halve Eeuw Op Het Scherpst Van De Snee' features various written homages by Flemish cultural icons. 


Self portrait of Gal, created in December 1992 for the magazine Markant to anticipate the upcoming New Year. The original drawing was in black-and-white.

Series and books by Gal (BE) in stock in the Lambiek Webshop:

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